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Coffins, or funeral caskets, are containers in which the dead are buried. Burial practices differ markedly across cultures and through history, but many peoples have used wooden, stone, or metal boxes for burial. Beautifully decorated stone boxes called sarcophagi were used in ancient Egypt. Stone coffins were also used in Europe in the Christian era, and later lead or iron coffins became common. Only wealthier people could afford elaborate coffins, and in Western cultures since the Middle Ages, poorer people were buried in simple wooden boxes. The very poor had no coffins at all, and might be laid in the grave wrapped in a blanket.

The making of a wooden coffin is not significantly different from any other type of carpentry or cabinetry. In some parts of the world, skilled carpenters specialize in elaborate coffins. Italy has a vanishing tradition of hand-built burial caskets, and master crafts-men in Ghana continue to create coffins in fanciful shapes such as birds, cars, and ears of corn. In the United States, coffins were traditionally built only as needed, by the local carpenter. The carpenter “undertook” to take care of the deceased, hence the origin of the term undertaker. Over the past 50 years, the coffin industry in the United States has become increasingly centralized. A few manufacturers with large, automated plants now dominate the market. The same phenomenon exists in Canada and the United Kingdom as well. In reaction to this centralization, many small casket makers have recently tried to reach the public directly, selling coffins either through showrooms, by mail, or over the Internet. Some alternatives to the conventional coffin have also arisen. One small manufacturer in England specializes in basket-like coffins made of a traditional willow wicker, while a Swiss entrepreneur advocates the Peace Box, a cardboard coffin made principally of recycled materials.

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Raw Materials

Raw materials used in casket making vary greatly. The Peace Box is made from card-board, and a deluxe coffin for a head of state may be made of solid bronze. Wooden caskets may be assembled from pine boards, or use an expensive hardwood such as cherry or mahogany. The most common American coffin is made from steel. Still others are made of fiberglass.

Most caskets, except for the most simple, contain, in addition to the outer shell, an inner lining. This is typically made of taffeta or velvet. The lining may be backed with a batting material, usually polyester, and cardboard may back the batting.

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Other materials used in the manufacture of coffins include steel or other metals for hinges and accessories; rubber, if a gasket is used to seal the coffin; and paint.

The Manufacturing

A wooden casket can be manufactured in any woodshop, using cabinet-making tools and techniques. Ambitious consumers can make their own, just as some people make their own bookcases and coffee tables. A typical small casket manufacturer is more often a casket assembler, buying prefabricated parts and putting them together. The three essential elements of the coffin are the shell, the lining, and the handles and accessories. A small manufacturer may buy casket shells in a semi-finished state from a casket shell producer, and finished linings from another supplier. The manufacturing process might then consist of painting the shell, stapling or latching the lining into the interior, and then screwing on handles and any additional hardware such as decorative corner pieces or latches. Large casket manufacturers do all the manufacturing and assembling under one roof. The following description is of the process for a typical steel coffin.

Assembling the shell

  • 1 Steel caskets are typically made of 18-or 20-gauge steel, which is delivered to the manufacturer from a steel producer in coils. A small coil may weigh 1,000 lb (454 kg), while the largest may weigh up to 20,000 lb (9,080 kg). The steel coil is first sent through a leveler, which straightens it. Then the metal is cut into large blanks by a blanking machine. The blanks are then fed into a die stamper, which stamps the parts of the shell. The parts are then passed to a welding area. In the welding area, workers feed the parts into an automatic welder, which welds together the body of the coffin. The tops are also welded this way. Then a worker welds by hand any areas the welding machine did not cover.


  • 2 The shells are then passed to a painting area. Workers apply paint using a spray gun, with a continuous supply of paint piped in through hoses. First the shells are sprayed with primer, next with paint. Then the caskets are baked, to set the paint. Other industries use similar painting processes. The paint used for steel caskets is unique, and specially formulated.


  • 3 At this point, the lids are ready to be assembled to the shells, and hinges and handles are screwed on. Hinges are usually made of steel. A worker welds these on by hand. Workers then attach handles. These are usually preassembled, either at the casket manufacturer or at a supplier’s facility. They attach simply, either by snapping into place or with screws. Next, decorative pieces, such as corner plates, are attached in the same way.

Making the lining

  • 4 The upholstery that lines the casket may be bought in specified dimensions from a supplier, and then simply inserted in to the finished shell. It may also be made on site. Seamstresses take rolls of the lining material, usually taffeta, and feed it through shirring machines. These multi-needle machines gather and stitch the material into a decorative quilted design. Seamstresses working at industrial sewing machines then cut and sew the shirred material into the proper dimensions. Workers also cut and sew a thick batting material, which backs the taffeta. Taffeta and batting are then attached to a cardboard backing. Then workers fit this three-layered upholstery into the finished shell. The upholstery may be glued or stapled to the shell, or it may be designed so it simply snaps into place in the shell.


  • 5 After the coffin has passed a final inspection, it is sent to a packaging area. Coffins are prone to scratching, so care is taken to package them well. The finished caskets are first wrapped in large sheets of packing paper to protect the finish from rubs and scratches. The corners are given additional padding. Then the casket is put in a clear plastic bay. After this, the bag-covered casket is covered with a plastic shrink-wrap. Before shipping, the casket is wrapped in a rug similar to a mover’s blanket. Caskets are then taken by truck to warehouses for distribution.

Quality Control

Workers inspect coffins for defects at several points during the manufacturing process. When the steel comes into the factory, it must be inspected to insure it is the proper gauge and quality. Workers check the parts of the shell after they are stamped, and inspect again before the shells go to the painting area. The shells are checked again after painting, as this is particularly important to the final appearance of the casket. The upholstery and accessories have their own quality checks. Then the finished product is examined carefully before it is sent to the packaging area.

The Future

In the United States, cremation is becoming increasingly prevalent, and the demand for coffins is not growing. Future developments in the industry might lie more in the realm of marketing than in the actual manufacture. Traditionally in the United States, coffins are purchased only after a death, usually as part of a burial package offered by a funeral home. Consumers who purchase a coffin directly from the manufacturer are able to reap significant savings by foregoing the middleman service of the funeral home. Since the mid-1990s, many small coffin manufacturers have boldened their efforts to reach consumers. Another growing area is funeral insurance, which covers the cost of a funeral-including casket-for the policy bearer, upon the bearer’s death. Though marketing caskets may grow more sophisticated and competitive, the actual technology used in their manufacture is relatively simple, and does not seem prone to quick changes and development.

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Earth friendly burial

W H A T   I S   G R E E N   B U R I A L?

Green, or natural burial is a way of caring for the dead with minimal environmental impact that aids in the conservation of natural resources, reduction of carbon emissions, protection of worker health, and the restoration and/or preservation of habitat. Green burial necessitates the use of non-toxic and biodegradable materials, such as caskets, shrouds, and urns.

What does it mean if a cemetery is Green Burial Council certified?

GBC certification allows consumers to be able to distinguish between the three levels of green burial ground and understand that each has a different set of standards. It requires cemetery operators commit to a certain degree of transparency, accountability and third party oversight. And it prevents future owners from going back on whatever ecological or aesthetic promises have been made in the past — from limitations on burial density that protect a local ecosystem to prohibitions against the use of monuments that would negatively impact a viewshed.

What’s wrong with embalming?

The Council does not think any end-of-life ritual, form of disposition, or mode of post-mortem preparation is “wrong”. We are simply advocates for green services and products that help to minimize the environmental impact of our last acts.Embalming fluid is usually comprised of the carcinogen chemical formaldehyde, which has been proven to pose health risks in funeral homes. A study by the National Cancer Institute released in late 2009 revealed that funeral directors have a much higher incidence of myeloid leukemia. Fortunately, there are now several formaldehyde-free embalming fluids, including one made entirely of nontoxic and biodegradable essential oils, which recently earned the GBC seal of approval. The sanitation and preservation of a decedent can almost always take place without the use of chemicals, as is done in just about every nation in the world.

Since burial vaults are made from concrete, shouldn’t they be considered green?

While the concrete and metal in vaults may be considered “natural” to some, the manufacturing and transporting of vaults uses a tremendous amount of energy and causes enormous carbon emission. In this US, vault manufacturing requires the production of 1.6 tons of reinforced concrete. Vaults are not required in GBC-approved hybrid burial grounds, and they are prohibited in natural and conservation level burial grounds.

How do I know that a particular product is suitable for a green burial?

The GBC believes a casket, urn, or shroud is suitable for a green burial if it is made from materials/substances that are nontoxic and readily biodegradable. We also require that these products not be made from materials that are harvested in a manner that unnecessarily destroys habitat, as is the case with certain types of materials. A list of caskets, urns, and shrouds that meet these requirements, whose producers have provided us with clean, fully disclosed material safety data sheets

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Green Buriul


A natural burial grave site. The existing landscape is modified as little as possible. Only flat stone markers are allowed.

The body may be prepared without chemical preservatives or disinfectants such as embalming fluid, which might destroy the microbial decomposers that break the body down. It may be buried in a biodegradable coffin, casket, or shroud. The grave does not use a burial vault or outer burial container that would prevent the body’s contact with soil. The grave should be shallow enough to allow microbial activity similar to that found in composting. Natural burials can take place both on private land (subject to regulations) and in any cemetery that will accommodate the vault-free technique.[citation needed]

A wide variety of land management techniques, such as sustainable agriculture, restoration ecology, habitat conservation projects, and permaculture, may be used to maintain the burial area in perpetuity. Landscaping methods may accelerate or slow down the decomposition rate of bodies, depending on the soil system.

Natural Burial Grounds were pioneered in the UK.[citation needed]


Many funeral directors encourage a viewing of a dead body at a commercial funeral home as part of a “package” that the family of the deceased pay for, without knowing that it is optional.[1] The primary purpose of embalming is to delay decomposition long enough to allow the body to be viewed.

In many countries, the law requires that dead bodies be chilled with dry ice or mechanical refrigeration to prevent microbial growth, though there are no laws mandating embalming, contrary to popular belief. Many cultures around the world use no artificial cooling at all, and bodies are regularly held for several days before their final disposal.

Special circumstances, such as an extended time between death and burial, or the transportation of remains on commercial flights (which often require unembalmed bodies to travel in expensive specialized containers), may necessitate embalming.

The most common embalming fluid is composed of organic chemicals and contains 5–29% formaldehyde, ethanol and water. This solution is biodegradable in time, but it cross-links proteins found in tissue-cell membranes, slowing down bacterial decomposition and inhibiting the body’s breakdown in the earth. The ability of embalming fluid to contaminate soil or water tables has not been studied thoroughly. In alkaline soils, formaldehyde would be broken down through the Cannizzaro reaction and become Urotropin, but not all soils are alkaline.

Formaldehyde is highly toxic to all animals, and is “known to be a human carcinogen”.[2][3][4][5] It is implicated in cancer, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disorders of the nervous system, and other ailments. The U.S.Occupational Safety and Health Administration has the power to require embalmers to wear respirators.


Natural coffins are made from materials that readily biodegrade. Ideally the materials are easily renewed or recycled and require less energy for their production.

Coffins (tapered-shoulder shape) and caskets (rectangular) are made from a variety of materials, most of them not biodegradable. 80–85% of the caskets sold for burial in North America in 2006 were of stamped steel. Solid wood and particle board (chipboard) coffins with hardwood veneers account for 10–15% of sales, and fiberglass and alternative materials such as woven fiber make up the rest. In Australia 85–90% of coffins are solid wood and particle board.

Most traditional caskets in the UK are made from chipboard covered in a thin veneer. Handles are usually plastic designed to look like brass. Chipboard requires glue to stick the wood particles together. Some glues that are used, such as those that contain formaldehyde, are feared to cause pollution when they are burned during cremation or when degrading in the ground.[citation needed] However, not all engineered wood products are produced using formaldehyde glues.

Caskets and coffins are often manufactured using exotic and even endangered species of wood, and are designed to prevent decomposition. While there are generally no restrictions on the type of coffin used, most sites encourage the use of environmentally friendly coffins made from materials like cane, bamboo, wicker or fiberboard.[6][7][8][9][10] A weight bearing shroud is another option.[1]


Natural burial grounds employ a variety of methods of memorialization. Families that bury their loved ones in nature preserves can record the GPS coordinates of the location where they are buried, without using physical markers.[7] Some natural burial sites use flat wooden plaques, or a name written on a natural rock. Many families plant trees, or other native plants near the grave to provide a living memorial.

Other kinds of burial[edit]

Alternatives to burial in the ground include burial in a coral reef, sky burial and burial at sea.

Coral reef burial[edit]

People have been known to bury their remains within coral reef balls. These balls are used to repair damages coral reefs.[11] The most prominent organization promoting this is the “Eternal Reefs” group.[12]

Sky Burial[edit]

Main article: Sky Burial

In some parts of Tibet and Mongolia, a person’s remains are fed to vultures in a burial known as Sky Burial. This is seen as being good to the environment as well as good karma in Buddhism.[13][14]

Burial at sea[edit]

Main article: Burial at sea

Burial at sea is seen as a natural burial if done in a way that benefits the environment, and without formaldehyde. Some organizations specialize in natural burial at sea (in a shroud), allowing the body to decompose or be consumed by animals.[15]

Environmental issues with conventional burial[edit]

Each year, 22,500 cemeteries across the United States bury approximately:[16]

When formaldehyde is used for embalming, it breaks down, and the chemicals released into the ground after burial and ensuing decomposition are inert. The problems with the use of formaldehyde and its constituent components in natural burial are the exposure of mortuary workers to it[18] and the destruction of the decomposer microbes necessary for breakdown of the body in the soil.[19]


Natural burial has been practiced for thousands of years, but has been interrupted in modern times by new methods such as vaults, liners, embalming, and mausoleums that mitigate the decomposition process. In the late 19th century Sir Francis Seymour Hayden proposed “earth to earth burial” in a pamphlet of the same name, as an alternative to both cremation and the slow putrefaction of encased corpses.

United Kingdom[edit]

The Association of Natural Burial Grounds (ANBG) was established by The Natural Death Centre charity in 1994. It aims to help people to establish sites, to provide guidance to natural burial ground operators, to represent its members, and to provide a Code of Conduct for members. The NDC also publishes The Natural Death Handbook.[20]

The first woodland burial ground in the UK was created in 1993 at Carlisle Cemetery and is called The Woodland Burial.[21] Nearly 300 dedicated natural burial grounds have been created in the UK.


The Natural Burial Co-operative provides a Directory of Natural Burial Grounds in Canada[22]

The Natural Burial Association (NBA) is an independent, non-profit organization established in 2005 to promote natural burial in Canada and to encourage the establishment of natural burial sites there.[23]

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealand’s Natural Burial organisation was started in 1999 by Mark Blackham.[24] It is a not-for-profit organization that advocates for natural cemeteries, promotes the concept to the public, and certifies cemeteries, funeral directors and caskets for use in participating cemeteries.[25]

The first natural cemetery in New Zealand was established in 2008 in the capital, Wellington,[26] as a partnership between the Wellington City Council and Natural Burials. It is the nation’s biggest natural cemetery, covering approx 2 hectares, and home to 120 burials (April 2015).

More natural cemeteries have since been set up by between Natural Burials and the council authorities in New Plymouth in 2011,[27]Otaki in 2012.[28] and Marlborough in 2014.[29]

Other councils have set up small natural burial zones: Marsden Valley in 2011, Motueka in 2012,[30] and Hamilton in 2014.[31] Although these have all based on the approach used by Natural Burials, they have not been certified by the organisation.

United States[edit]

Billy Campbell, a rural doctor and a pioneer of the green burial movement in the USA, opened the first modern “green cemetery”[clarification needed] in North America at the Ramsey Creek Preserve in South Carolina in 1998.

The Green Burial Council (GBC) is an independent, tax-exempt, nonprofit organization that aims to encourage sustainability in the interment industry and to use burial as a means of ecological restoration and landscape conservation. Founded in 2005, the GBC has been stewarded by individuals representing the environmental/conservation community, consumer organizations, academia, the deathcare industry, and such organizations and institutions as The Nature Conservancy, The Trust for Public Land, AARP, and the University of Colorado. The organization established the nation’s first certifiable standards for cemeteries, funeral providers, burial product manufacturers, and cremation facilities. As of 2013, there are a total of 37 burial grounds certified by the Green Burial Council in 23 states and British Columbia. A cemetery becomes certified by demonstrating compliance with stringent established standards for a given category. The aforementioned Ramsey Creek Preserve is certified by the GBC. Conventional funeral providers in thirty-nine states now offer the burial package approved by the Green Burial Council.

Most of the 32-acre (130,000 m2) Fernwood Burial Ground, adjacent to the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in Mill Valley, California, is set aside for natural burial, with no tombstones or caskets.

Penn Forest Natural Burial Park ( is the first Natural Burial Grounds in Pennsylvania certified by the Green Burial Council. 2-1/2 acres are laid out for burial, and the other 32-1/2 acres are available for other uses: a barn for goats that clear the property of brush, hiking trails, gardens, an acquaponic pond for fish and vegetables, a blacksmith teaching shop, beehives and other sustainable projects.

Foxfield Preserve, adjacent to The Wilderness Center’s headquarters near Wilmot, Ohio, was the first nature preserve cemetery in the US to be operated by a nonprofit conservation organization. Naturalists from The Wilderness Center have restored this formerly agricultural land to native prairie grasses and wildflowers. A section has also been reforested in native hardwood trees.[32]

Circle Cemetery, located at Circle Sanctuary Nature Preserve in southwestern Wisconsin, has offered burial of cremated remains and non-embalmed bodies since 1995. It is operated by Circle Sanctuary, a Wiccan church.[33]

Cedar Brook Burial Ground in Limington, Maine, the first green cemetery in Maine is located on a 150 acre tree farm thirty miles due west of Portland. Within its borders sits the rock wall-enclosed Joshua Small Cemetery, a tiny, historic graveyard whose dozen burials date back to the early 1800s.[34]

River View Cemetery,[35] located in Portland, Oregon is registered with the Green Burial Council as a “hybrid” natural burial cemetery. Rather than restricting natural burials to just one specific section, River View permits natural burial in nearly every area of the cemetery, allowing those who wish to be interred in existing family plots without an outer burial container, without embalming, or even without a casket if they choose to do so.

Steelmantown Cemetery is the only cemetery in the State of New Jersey certified and approved by the Green Burial Council as a Level 3 Natural Burial Ground.


Jewish law forbids embalming for traditional burials, which it considers to be desecration of the body. The body is ritually washed by select members of the Jewish community, wrapped in a muslin sheet, and placed in an all-wood casket. The casket must not have any metal in it, and it often has holes in the bottom to ensure that it and the cadaver rapidly decompose and return to the earth. Burial vaults are not used unless required by the cemetery. In Israel, Jews are buried without a casket, in just the shroud.

Islamic law instructs that the deceased be washed and buried with only a wrapping of white cloth to preserve dignity. The cloth is sometimes perfumed, but as in natural burial, no chemical preservatives or embalming fluid are used, nor is there a burial vault, coffin or casket. Coffins are used, however, in countries such as the UK, where the law requires it

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eco funerals


Below is an article featured on Science.Mic written by Max Plenke .  Read the article from the original website here.

Half a billion people are going to die in the next decade — and we can’t keep cramming their caskets into the Earth.

Every year, tens of millions of the 7.4 billion people on Earth will die. Some will be cremated, and millions will be buried in the ground, accompanied by pounds of steel, wood and toxic embalming fluid. As the population on Earth grows, so too does the one right below its surface — rendering the ground useless for new growth.

The question is this: Are traditional burials selfish? I mean, shit, probably.

“Americans are funny about feeling like they own a 4-by-8 plot for eternity,” Kate Kalanick, executive director of Green Burial Council, said in a phone interview Wednesday. “In an environmental sense, traditional burial is selfish for the impact it has. I don’t think people really think about how their death affects the land or our world.”

Traditional Burial Is Polluting the Planet. So Where Will We All Go When We Die?
Source: Getty Images

Let’s break down the numbers. Traditional caskets are hundreds of pounds of wood, metal and whatever cushioning goes inside. Ronald Reagan’s casket — a big mahogany tank of a box — allegedly weighed 400 pounds. Burial vaults, the enclosures that barricade each casket from the elements, can be around 3,000 pounds of cement, sometimes steel. For embalming, it seems the golden rule is one gallon of fluid per 50 pounds of body. Add it all up and you’ve got around two tons of material per body — plus a few gallons of an occasionally hallucinogenic embalming juice — chilling in the earth forever.

“Traditional burial is selfish for the impact it has. I don’t think people really think about how their death affects the land or our world.” — Kate Kalanick

Now zoom out. For all of the 7.4 billion people breathing on the planet right now, there are around 15 dead and buried beneath them.  The Population Reference Bureau estimated 107 billion people have, ever, roamed the planet, Live Science reported. We don’t know exactly how many of those dead people had traditional burials. But even if 10% of them were buried in a cement-tombed, mahogany casket, that’s still a colossal amount of shellacked, nonbiodegradable, poisonous crap going in the ground every year.

Traditional Burial Is Polluting the Planet. So Where Will We All Go When We Die?
Just a couple very large burial vaults
Source: Getty Images

Here’s the deal: Every body decomposes eventually; all the casket, cement enclosure and formaldehyde do is slow down the process. But sooner or later, the whole body — even the gallons of toxic, carcinogenic embalming fluid — end up in the water table of whatever place they’re buried.

Despite the downsides of burial, not everyone wants to be cremated. Plus, there’s plenty of evidence suggesting the energy it takes to burn a body down wreaks significant damage on the environment.

If we’re going to put bodies in the ground, we need smart ways to do it. That’s where organizations like Kalanick’s Green Burial Council come in.

Traditional Burial Is Polluting the Planet. So Where Will We All Go When We Die?
Source: Getty Images

The burial of the future: The idea of a green burial is to make as little an impact on the natural environment of the burial site as possible.

“Green burials negate that environmental selfishness,” Kalanick said.

Green burial grounds look a lot like the land did before it got filled up with bodies. The headstones are often rocks or trees indigenous to the landscape. There’s no cement vault. The casket is biodegradable and the embalming fluid is plant-based.

“If you look out across the site, it would look like a field or a wooded area,” Kalanick said. “It all depends on the natural landscape. But they aren’t maintaining the grass with chemicals.”

Traditional Burial Is Polluting the Planet. So Where Will We All Go When We Die?
Source: Getty Images

There’s even a green way to get cremated. Jose Vazquez is an architect and designer who created the Spíritree, an urn that takes the ashes of someone and turns them into a seeding ground for a new tree.

The problem with traditional cemeteries is you can’t do anything else with the land once bodies are under the ground, Vazquez said over the phone.

“The idea of my product is this continuation through nature,” he said. “You become a memory through a tree. The whole forest could be the collective memory of loved ones.”

“You become a memory through a tree. The whole forest could be the collective memory of loved ones.” — Jose Vazquez

A whole forest of grandparents sounds like the beginning of a horror movie. But at least it’s a horror movie that provides oxygen to people walking through the woods. And it’s less scary than all of those “dead” cemeteries that are a few hundred years old, turning into eyesores in middle-of-nowhere, Nevada.

Traditional Burial Is Polluting the Planet. So Where Will We All Go When We Die?
Source: Getty Images

Funeral trends are changing. Thanks to a recent shift in the funeral industry, new cemeteries won’t be taking up more and more of the Earth’s surface.

At least that’s according to Julie Found, funeral director of Found and Sons Funeral Home in Fredericksburg, Virginia. She said cremation is more common than it once was, cutting down on the amount of space your body occupies after death.

“I think traditional burials — the embalming, the casket, visitation — are, for lack of a better word, dying,” Found said in a phone interview March 29. “It’s a weird time in the funeral industry. The public … doesn’t see the reasoning in paying $10- to $15,000 to bury a person in a cemetery.”

The environmental impact is starting to make a difference too, Found said — especially when the younger generation takes over their families’ funeral homes.

“The older generation, the people burying their parents right now, still don’t feel that impact,” Found said. “But my generation is concerned with the environment.”

“The older generation, the people burying their parents right now, still don’t feel that impact,” Julie Found said. “But my generation is concerned with the environment.”

Here’s a weird proposition: Young folks need to get less precious about how we treat our dead. Yes, loved ones need to be memorialized. But who’s to say thousands of pounds of metal and wood is still the best way to do it?

Maybe now it’s about letting their bodies become part of the land. Or turning them into trees. Because while a haunted forest grown out of your mom’s side of the family sounds frightening, it’s a hell of a lot less scary than a corpse- and chemical-addled Earth where nothing new can grow.

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noun: casket; plural noun: caskets
  1. a small ornamental box or chest for holding jewels, letters, or other valuable objects.
    synonyms: boxchestcasecontainerreceptacle

    “a small casket of jewels”
late Middle English: perhaps an Anglo-Norman French form of Old French cassette, diminutive of casse(see case2).
Translate casket to
Use over time for: casket